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123 Agreement Is Between These Countries

Congress has spoken out bipartisanly in favour of supporting both the gold standard provisions and a more active role of Congress in monitoring ongoing negotiations with Saudi Arabia and the broader 123 agreements. Members of Congress expressed concern over reports of a potential conflict of interest by senior government officials in negotiating a U.S.-Saudi-Saudi nuclear cooperation agreement and the secrecy surrounding the ongoing negotiations and recent authorizations issued by the Trump administration, saying they had not been adequately evaluated under the Atomic Energy Act. The recent devastating tsunami in Japan and the tragedy that followed at a Japanese nuclear power plant once again demonstrated the vulnerability of the nuclear industry. The long-term future of the industry (there is no short- and medium-term alternative) depends in large part on the ability of major nuclear countries to agree to coordinate their efforts for the nuclear industry and emerge stronger from this crisis than before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Maintaining the nuclear industry requires greater international cooperation in the nuclear field. Finally, in 2009, the United States negotiated and signed new agreements with the United Arab Emirates (known for the « gold standard ») and Vietnam in 2014 and signed new agreements in 2010 with Australia, Taiwan in 2013 (which also included « gold standard » provisions), China and South Korea in 2015 and Norway in 2016. The « gold standard » provisions concern a country that declares itself ready to forego the enrichment and reprocessing of nuclear materials. Agreement 123 has another promising consequence for the Russian nuclear industry – it removes one of the obstacles to nuclear cooperation with Tokyo. The Japanese groups Toshiba and Hitachi have a close partnership with the American companies Westinghouse and General Electric. That is why they were very careful when it came to continuing cooperation with Russia so as not to jeopardize their activities in the United States.

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