Location de chapiteaux sur Marseille, pour professionnels et particuliers
Many observers were disappointed that the Paris agreement was not subject to climate migration, but preliminary negotiations to Paris were the cornerstone of a dynamic coordination facility, placed within the unFCCC system, to protect migrants from climate change. One of the main ways in which the international community can address immigration is to eliminate some of the triggers that make it necessary to flee populations. Improved disaster preparedness, diversification of livelihoods, reversal of environmental degradation and protection of land ownership will increase the likelihood that vulnerable communities will be able to adapt to the effects of climate change in their own countries. This strategy is also economical: for every dollar spent during the prevention phase, up to $7 is saved in response and recovery. However, between 1991 and 2010, only 1% of the funds were spent on preparations. Although there are no legally binding international regulations for the protection of climate migrants, there are voluntary pacts that could be used to help these migrants. In particular, 193 countries have adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, which address both migration and climate change. Climate migrants therefore face many social and economic barriers to integration into new communities, increasing their vulnerability to exploitation, financial misery and discrimination. This can also lead to instability. Many experts agree that the roots of the Syrian conflict are partly due to a prolonged drought between 2006 and 2010, which led to higher food prices, urban migration and growing discontent with the ruling Assad regime over corruption and poor governance.
While the current government has emphasized or rejected climate-friendly approaches, the current impact of the migration crisis on security could lead to a further revision of this policy. There should be multi-party support, particularly within the security community, to reduce conditions that accelerate international migration. Multilateral institutions, development agencies and international law need to do much more to address the challenges posed by climate change (early efforts, such as the World Bank`s 2010 Global Development Report on Climate Change7, had few constraints at a time when few thought a climate crisis was imminent). In addition, there is no multilateral strategy or legal framework to take climate change into account as a driver of migration. Whether it is limited access to clean water, food shortages, agricultural degradation or violent conflicts8, climate change will exacerbate these challenges and be an important incentive in human migration patterns. Although there are few cases of climate change as the sole factor in migration, climate change is widely recognized as a contributing factor to migration and the aggravation of conflicts. Overall, the Paris Agreement lacks the urgency, depth and coordinated framework needed to address the immense challenges of climate-related migration. Marine Franck, from the Advisory Group on Climate Change and Human Mobility, told a COP21 press conference: « Climate eviction is not a future phenomenon. It`s a reality. it is already a global concern. The world needs to do better. Finally, there is a great need to promote social cohesion and improve cooperation.
The tensions and challenges of migration can only be met through open dialogue, education and interaction. These discussions should take place at the international level at the local level and should include governments and ministries of labour, as well as civil society and private sector enterprises. Migration is a huge challenge, involving millions of people and dozens of countries; it requires an integrated, collaborative international response.