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If the first name in the series is singular or not, use it. Note: Although there are or are useful constructs in certain situations, some authors prefer to rephrase the sentence. If you decide to reformulate the list and place it in front of the verb, you need to match the verb to the plural list (and not just to the following element): the safest (imo) is to take into account that the dummy pronoun « there » is the grammatical subject. There are syntactic tests that can be used to discover the grammatical theme. Both Quirk et al.`s reference grammar, A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, and Huddleston and Pullum`s 2002 reference grammar, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, assume in principle that « there » is the grammatical subject. Concordance in English is a grammatical indication that two or more neighboring words share part of their meaning. A well-known example is the « subject-verb » chord, in which a verb is either singular or plural, according to which of these two meanings is present in a subnoun or pronoun that is its subject. I`ve seen a lot of bad advice, uh, « rules, » circulating in the pseudo subject/verb. Here`s one: in total, it seems that there are three main types of combinations for which there is a consensus. In addition to verbs and their subjects, we find some adjective words that correspond to a noun that normally follows them, but sometimes unfolds, and pronouns that correspond to nouns or their equivalents.
Each of these types has a few characteristics that can be barriers to successful reading and/or writing. But when it refers to a number of names that use a conjunction as and or or use, it seems that the logic will come out the window. We know that X and Y mean at least two, so why would there be a singular verb in this case? It can be very surprising for students to learn that it is not only possible, but also common to see a singular verb in front of more than one noun. The difference may seem negligible, but remember that in a « number » of constructions, although the plurality of phenomena in the sentence is important, the identity of the phenomena – objections, in the first example above – is the essential information. Similarly, in the second example, the reader must know to which objects the indicated quantity relates, but the point of the sentence is the quantity; Therefore, the number is the keyword. In Quirk et al., page 1405, in the section « The status of the existential there as a subject », it is said: Tell learners that this rule can be used in any form of time (for example.B existed, there was, etc.).