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Until rtaa, Congress had been primarily lobbied by industries that were trying to create or increase tariffs to protect their industry. This change has also helped to secure many of the benefits of trade liberalization. In short, the political incentive to increase tariffs has decreased and the political incentive to reduce tariffs has increased.  In 1950, the duty rates of industrialized countries averaged 40%; But fifty years later, after the implementation of most of the Uruguay Round concessions; They had fallen to 4% on average. In addition, non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and arbitrary standards, have also been removed. World trade has exploded, encouraged by this enormous liberalization of trade barriers; Imports and exports, which accounted for only about 10.9 per cent of U.S. gross national product in 1947, rose to nearly 30 per cent in 2008, before the global financial and economic crisis, and reached just over 30 per cent in recent years. Most economists believe that this growth in trade contributed enormously to U.S. economic growth in the years following World War II. The original objective of GATT was to negotiate tariff concessions among members and to define a code of conduct and procedures for the settlement of trade disputes through negotiations. The fundamental assumption underlying U.S. participation in these efforts to promote multilateral trade agreements was that international cooperation on trade and investment created harmonious political relations and reduced tensions between nations.
GATT was founded on the principles of non-discrimination and multilateralism in international trade. Non-discrimination was expressed in the unconditional most-favoured-nation status for all Contracting Parties. Under this agreement, in the event of a reduction in customs duties on imports from one country, customs duties on all imports of the same products from other GATT members must also be reduced. Most-favoured-nation contracts were the preferred means for the US to deal with China in the nineteenth century, when the US had access to the Chinese market on the back of British imperialism. Indeed, the most favoured treaties have been favoured throughout the history of the United States and gatt has been only the recent embodiment of this mechanism for expanding trade opportunities. The multilateralism of the 1950s and 1960s favored the expansion of American companies around the world, but in the 1970s and 1980s, free trade meant that the United States was subject to fierce competition from the revitalized economies of Western Europe and Japan. . . .